Options –Indexes Traditional Educational Institutions in Child Education

Traditional Educational Institutions in Child Education

Sierra Leone is bounded on the north-west, north and north-east by the Republic Guinea, on the south-east by the Republic of Liberia and on south-west by the Atlantic Ocean. It has an space of 27,925 sq. miles. The colony of Sierra Leone originated within the sale and cession in 1787 by native chiefs to English settlers of a bit of land meant as a house for African settlers who had been waifs in London and later it was used as a settlement for freed African slaves. The hinterland was declared a British Protectorate on twenty first August, 1896. Sierra Leone attained independence on twenty seventh April, 1961 and have become a Republic in 1971. Training is supplied by each non-public and state-sponsored colleges. The present system of training is 6-3-4-4 (that’s six years Major college, three years Junior Secondary Faculty, 4 years Senior Secondary Faculty and 4 years tertiary/greater training. This technique is complemented by non- formal training.

CONCEPT OF EDUCATION

Training is continuously used within the sense of instruction within the classroom, laboratory, workshop or home science room and consists principally within the imparting by the instructor, and the acquisition by pupils, of data and psychological in addition to handbook abilities. A wider that means than instruction is that of education. That’s to say all that goes on throughout the college as a part of the pupil’s life there. It consists of, amongst different issues, relationship between pupils and lecturers, pupils and pupils each in and outdoors the college. J. S. Mill (1931) opined that no matter helps to form the human being; to make the person what he’s or hinder him from being what he’s not is a part of his training. Implicitly training is lifelong and ubiquitous; it’s the sum complete of all influences which go to make an individual what he’s, from delivery to demise. It consists of the house, our neighbors, and the road amongst others.

Training is to some extent a deliberate deliberate course of devised and performed by the educator with the aim of imbuing the learner with sure info, abilities, of thoughts and physique in addition to modes of habits thought-about fascinating. Partially it’s the learner’s personal response to the surroundings wherein he lives. Training has three focal factors: the person/particular person upon whom the educator’s influences are delivered to bear; the society or neighborhood to which he belongs; and the entire context of actuality inside which the person and society play their half. Man is a social creature; he grows as an individual by the influence of persona on persona; and even for his primary bodily wants he depends upon the assistance and cooperation of his fellow women and men. With out society and the mutual assist and enrichment of experiences which it gives civilization is not possible and the lifetime of man, in Hobbes’ phrases, is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and quick.”

One of many elementary info of human existence is the stress between the pull of the previous and the ahead urge into the longer term, between stability and alter, custom and innovation. For efficient residing,man wants a circle of safety, an space of established habits and relationship which varieties reliable relationships. That is additionally true of society. For its efficient functioning there have to be an underlying continuity of traditions and outlook which preserves its identification as a society and safeguards it in opposition to the disruptive results of change. Change have to be for all times and never static however this variation in flip have to be managed by the essential traditions of society. It’s custom which supplies a nation its character and distinctiveness as a society. The conservation of custom subsequently is clearly essential.

It has been acknowledged from time immemorial that the conservation of conventional training has a significant half to play within the improvement of the kid. The kids of in the present day are the adults of tomorrow; they have to be skilled subsequently, to inherit and perpetuate the beliefs and modes of life peculiar to the actual society to which they belong. For each society has the will to protect itself not solely bodily however as neighborhood consciously sharing sure goals, beliefs and patterns of habits. This kind of training will not be essentially formal in colleges by the use of classroom instruction however that effected not directly by the household and thru the influence on the person of social influences and customs which the kid can’t evade. In Sierra Leone this social training included elaborate ceremonies of initiation involving feats of endurance wherein younger women and men should show themselves worthy of the neighborhood. The last word purpose was to supply a person who was sincere, respectful, expert, cooperative, and who may conform to the social order of the day. As Aristotle as soon as said “the structure of a state will undergo if training is uncared for. The residents of a state ought to at all times be educated to swimsuit the structure of the state. The kind of character acceptable to a structure is the ability which continues to maintain it as it’s also the state power which initially created it” (p. I).

TRADITIONAL EDUCATION IN SOCIETY

Conventional training has each a inventive and conservation perform in society; it’s a highly effective technique of preserving a society’s customs, if not tradition. Previously the character and wishes of society performed a significant half in figuring out the character of training. Professor M.V.C. Jeffreys (1950) as soon as wrote in his e book, Glaucon, that “in a tranquil society the academic system will are inclined to mirror the social sample, whereas social uneasiness and instability create alternative for utilizing training as an instrument of social change”(p.7). The same view was shared by John Dewey (1897) who opined that by training society can formulate its personal functions, can set up its personal means and sources and thus save itself with definiteness and economic system within the route wherein it needs to maneuver. Training seems to be each to the previous and the longer term; inevitably it displays the traditions and character of society. Conventional training can be utilized to arrange for modifications in society and anticipate and forestall modifications or the results of modifications in society.

Conventional training conserves and arms on the customs and methods of life which represent the character of a society and maintains its unity. It additionally helps society to interpret its features in new methods to fulfill the challenges of change, searching for methods or traces of improvement that are in step with the traditions and customs and can on the similar time increase society to a extra full achievement of itself.
TRADITIONAL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN SIERRA LEONE

Historical past reveals that there have been no formal colleges the place kids had been educated in Pre-colonial Sierra Leone. The Poro and Bondo/Sande Secret Societies had been regarded upon as establishments to coach kids. They had been bush colleges. And the training these bush colleges supplied was casual. Kids who went by these secret societies had been thought-about able to finishing up their civic tasks. They grew to become adults and may marry and begin life. They thought-about themselves as one household. In different phrases each Secret Societies created a way of comradeship and unity amongst members regardless of household, clan or ethnic affiliation. It was subsequently thought-about that kids who had not gone by these secret societies weren’t absolutely matured.

The Poro Secret Society is for boys. The non secular head of the Poro Society is Pa Gbonu, seen solely by the older graduates or members. The bodily heads are the Pa Sama Yorgbors and Pa Somanos. They direct the actions of the establishment. The senior instructors are the Pa Kashis, who usually educate and provides directions to different initiators. The Pa Manchiyas function lecturers to the initiates whereas the Kachemas are the scaring spirits. They scare the ladies and youngsters alike along with the brand new initiates. The Rakas are the errand boys carrying messages round. The Yambas are the pinnacle boys. The Bomos are the senior prefects whereas the Sayboms are the prefects; and the displays are the Gbanaboms. Casual courses are held within the Secret Poro Bush. The themes taught embody Artistic Sensible Arts, Performing Arts, Sensible Agriculture, Medication i.e. use of native herbs for the therapy of various illnesses), warfare and different abilities. In Artistic Sensible Arts initiates are taught find out how to make fishing nets, baskets, mats, and carving wooden and cleaning soap stones into completely different objects akin to animals and people; in Performing Arts initiates are taught singing, dancing and using Poro musical devices. In Sensible Agriculture initiates observe farming. Boys are taught to bear hardship with out criticism and develop accustomed to it. Thus they’re taken to the farms of their lecturers and elders to work on professional bono foundation. Nonetheless through the harvest season initiates may cross by these farms taking no matter they want and eat with out being questioned by farm homeowners. Initiates are taught to respect elders and use of weapons to kill animals. In an analogous vein initiates are taught find out how to use weapons in combating in protection of their communities. Different abilities initiates are taught embody making fish traps, fishing and searching internet, and basketry. In using herbs initiates pay cash (some freely given) for therapeutic varied sicknesses in addition to for cover in opposition to enemies, evil spirits and snake bites. Initiates who wish to trigger hurt to others utilizing herbs may ‘redeem’ the herb/drugs involved. Over all initiates are taught a brand new Language spoken solely by members referred to as Ke Sornor. For instance fonka trika that means I’m speaking to you; fonka bonomi that means Speak to me. The usage of this new Language makes graduates very proud and really feel completely different from non-initiates. Graduates come out with new names akin to Lamp, Langba and Kolerr. A commencement ceremony climaxes the occasion.

Dad and mom make large preparations together with stitching attire for the graduates. To mark the commencement ceremony there’s feasting, consuming, dancing and singing reward songs for the graduates and their mother and father. These certified for initiation will need to have been circumcised and grown to age of puberty. They must reside on their very own through the interval of coaching which ranges from one to seven years. Graduates are absolutely admitted to the overall Poro society by one other ceremony referred to as Enkorie, which lasts for 4 days.

The Bondo/Sande Society is the establishment the place women are skilled for womanhood. Its non secular head is Na Bondigba. The Na Gboyamas and Na Wulus are the bodily heads. These have non secular powers used to predict the longer term and catch witches. They’re the senior lecturers. The Na Sokos are the service lecturers. They will provoke women even as much as the superior stage of the Society. The Digbas are the overall lecturers and keep near the initiates. The Sampas are the skillful dancers and errand women/girls. They make bulletins in regards to the progress and actions or applications through the commencement ceremony.

The Na Fets, because the identify implies have no idea all of the secrecy of the establishment. They carry the institutional implements and regalia. The Karr Ayeamus are the ‘waiters’ to be initiated into the upper standing of the establishment. Women admitted to the Bondo/Sande Society are skilled informally. Lessons are held at Kantha or sacred house. The lecturers are largely involved with the transmission to those adolescent women the abilities and information which grownup girls are anticipated to own as a way to perform correctly and intelligently of their neighborhood. The themes women are taught embody Cooking, Performing Arts, Fishing, Husband and Youngster Care, and Dwelling Administration. In Cooking women are taught find out how to put together meals by remark and participation within the preparation of varied dishes and are later allowed to have a go together with little or no supervision. Those that couldn’t cook dinner correctly are allowed to repeat. In Performing Arts women are taught find out how to compose and sing songs and find out how to beat the Bondo/Sande drums (sambories). Alongside singing women are taught find out how to dance and those that dance nicely might be part of the hierarchy of the Sampas. Women are additionally taught find out how to fishing, make fishing nets, fishing baskets, sleeping mats from bamboo and palm leaves. Additional women are taught find out how to assist their potential husbands and find out how to maintain kids particularly these of senior members. Just like the Poro Society commencement ceremonies are marked by large preparations. Each mother and father and potential husbands would purchase new attire, slippers, perfumes, powder, and beads to make neck laces. On the day of the commencement ceremony the brand new initiates are arrayed in white with coronets. They arrive out with new names akin to Burah, Yeanor, Rukor and Yainkain. This demonstrates an indication of maturity. Initiating women into Bondo/Sande society lasts between a couple of months and three years.

CHALLENGES

If training has the important perform of perpetuating the traditions and values of society, of adapting them to a altering surroundings, and of elevating them to richer and extra fruitful expression then each the Poro and Bondo/Sande Secret Societies, as conventional brokers of this course of ought to get pleasure from a place of the very best esteem. By means of these secret societies the nation’s tradition flows from one technology to the opposite and the aspirations of society are targeted with intimate and telling persuasion upon the younger. They stand at a degree the place the energies of youngsters are launched into new and artistic prospects. By means of these secret societies kids bear in mind the previous actions of their predecessors. They assist in behavioral coaching patterns of society. These societies are establishments of inspiration and each politicians and chiefs use them to benefit. That’s to both achieve or keep energy. Main and binding selections are taken within the Poro Bush of which solely members are allowed to attend and participate. The Poro Secret Society acts as a examine in opposition to the abuse of energy. In disaster ridden conditions main choice are taken within the Poro Bush. The Poro society even acts as arbitrator in chiefdom disputes and will promulgate common legal guidelines and regulate buying and selling practices. It is usually concerned within the burial of chiefs and different necessary native officers (Alie, 1990).

Western training has existed within the nation for lengthy and is now so integral a part of the civilized life that there’s a tendency to imagine that it’s the essential or sole technique of imparting abilities, information and social values in kids. This isn’t the case in Sierra Leone. The significance of the Poro and Bondo conventional secret societies can’t be over-sighted due to their monumental potentiality in educating kids for all times in society. Elementary is that respect for individuals as individuals is the idea of conventional society. Linked with that is courtesy, sensitivity to the wants of others, cooperativeness, self-discipline, ethical and bodily braveness, arduous work and excessive requirements of accomplishment. These are handed on to kids within the surroundings wherein they’re a part of their every day experiences. However, these conventional establishments as brokers of training are presently confronted with many challenges there-by forcing their demise. The observe of feminine genital circumcision is of worldwide concern and in Sierra Leone persons are agitating for its complete ban. At the moment women are allowed to be circumcised at age eighteen throughout which period a baby is perceived to be matured sufficient to decide on whether or not or to not be initiated into the Bondo/Sande secret society. As well as the interval of initiation is perceived too lengthy and is being challenged. Moreover kids lately not must be initiated into these societies to be taught find out how to be clear, cook dinner, rear kids, observe agriculture, and inculcate morals and virtues to quote a couple of examples. All these may very well be learnt both in or exterior formal education by studying. What’s extra Faith, particularly Christianity and Islam, western life, in addition to rural-urban migration are forcing these secret societies to obliteration.

Moreover the actions and work of those conventional societies usually are not in curriculum kind and documented. Neither is also using herbs documented. Subsequently by discontinuing these conventional secret societies Sierra Leoneans stand to lose their cultural heritage. If nonetheless, training has the important perform of perpetuating the traditions and values of society, of adapting them to a altering surroundings, and of elevating them to a richer and extra fruitful expression then these conventional secret societies, as brokers of this course of ought to get pleasure from a place of the very best esteem. By means of these societies the nationwide tradition flows from one technology to a different and the aspirations of society are targeted with intimate and telling persuasion upon the younger. These secret societies stand on the level the place the energies of youngsters are launched into new and artistic prospects

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